Table of Content



            1.1       Background                                                                                     

            1.2       Objectives of Chain Analysis                                                         

            1.3       Methodology                                                                                    


            2.1       Overview of safe vegetable production                                        

            2.2       Definition of safe vegetables                                                          

            2.3      State management of SV                                                                

            2.4       Conditions for production of safe vegetables                               

            2.5       SV training by DARD                                                                                   

            2.6       Procedure for certification of SV production area                      

            2.7       Procedures for certification of safe vegetables                            

            2.8      Self-certification of SV products                                                     

            2.9      Cost analysis for regular vegetable and SV in Viet Tri               

           2.10   Safe vegetable production investments costs                             


3.1      Safe vegetables – the Hanoi market                                             

            3.2       Safe vegetables - Viet Tri city market                                            


            4.1      Organization Tan Duc farmers groups                                         

            4.2      Production plan for 2009                                                                

            4.3       Marketing                                                                                          

4.4      Information sources                                                                         


            5.1       Main constraints in the safe vegetable chain                               

            5.2       Main strategies for chain intervention                                           

            5.3       Conditions for success                                                                    

            5.4      Strategy selection for CD program and potential partners 



1.1   Background

VECO-Vietnam is the country office of a Belgian NGO named Vredesieilanden and has been initiating projects in Vietnam since 1994. Since 2002, it implemented its Farmers Participation in Sustainable Agricultural Development and Poverty Reduction program in 3 Northern provinces of Vietnam – Phu Tho, Tuyen Quang and Lang Son. The program aimed to improve food security of farmers through sustainable agricultural practices while increasing their participation in the supply chain.

In 2008, VECO-Vietnam launched its new program on Sustainable Agriculture for Chain Development (SACD) with 5 commodities – tea, fish, pig, plum and safe vegetables. The intervention in the safe vegetable chain has already begun and MOAs have been signed with 2 parnters – The Economic Department mainly for production support and VINASTAS, a consumers’ organization for its promotional activities and public awareness campaign. In 2008, VECO also contracted the services of an expert consultant, Fresh Studio, to undertake a market survey and a consumer preference survey.

VECO has as well identified its target groups in 2 safe vegetable production areas of its project sites – Tan Duc commune near Viet Tri City in Phu Tho Province with 2 farmers groups representing a total of 83 farmers. And Lang Son city in Lang Son Province with Na Chung cooperative and its 44 members.


1.2   Objectives of the Chain Analysis

The need for a chain analysis became apparent in order to better understand the safe vegetable farmers, other actors in the chain such as collectors, wholesalers, restaurants and to identify constraints as well as intervention strategies. To this end, the analysis aims to bring forth:

  • An in-debt understanding of what safe vegetables are, its standards, production techniques, supporting organizations, costs and certification process;
  • A detailed overview of the 2 farmers’ groups, its management, services offered to members and most of all, a simple production plan for 2009;
  • Retailing and packaging options in marketing of safe vegetables;
  • A general overview of some key potential buyers, their supply chain, pricing, payment method and overall demand in vegetable;
  • Main chain constraints, potential strategies and key intervention activities to be undertaken by the chain development program.

The chain analysis report will not provide a comprehensive portrait of the vegetable chain in Viet Tri. But it is hoped that enough information will be provided to help understand how the chain works, its main actors as well as how VECO can support small scale farmers to strengthen their position in the chain.

1.3   Methodology

The main research question of this project is:

What are the constraints in safe vegetable production and potential chain interventions for Tan Duc farmers’ groups?

To answer this question, the research focused on several sub-questions:

  • What are safe vegetables and how do they compare to regular vegetables?
  • What role can the 2 Tan Duc farmers groups play in supplying safe vegetables to Viet Tri markets?
  • What are the characteristics of the marketing channels for Tan Duc produce?

The analysis was made with very limited resources – mainly one field staff who conducted most of the interviews and one office staff for writing of the report. Still, it is estimated that key players were contacted and interviewed for their input during field visits in February and March 2009.

The methodology used was

  • Semi-structured interview with 83 farmers who produce safe vegetables with the help of board members
  • Semi-structured interviews with over 20 regular vegetable farmers
  • Chain mapping analysis and interview with 4 retailers, 4 wholesalers, 6 restaurants and 6 canteens in 4 markets in Viet Tri and in one mini-mart
  • Partipatory observation to 4 supermarkets, 11 SV stalls in 2 wet markets and 3 safe vegetables shops in Hanoi
  • Historical analysis through research – Internet as well as printed documents
  • Interview with experts from the:




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